1. Hephaesteion (Thesion) Athens:  Located in Athens on a hill about one mile northwest of the Acropolis.  Originally called the Thesion because the frieze depicts the exploits of Theseus and also because some believed it to be the building to which Cimon brought the bones of Theseus in 469 BC.  Later the building was identified as a Temple of Hephaestus.  Construction began in 449 B.C.  Doric, hexastyle.  [original slide]
  2. Frieze of Hephaesteion:  frieze (a long horizontal panel encircling the roof of a structure; the second horizontal line where the ends of the beams running the length of the building are supported.  Doric frieze consisted of metopes and triglyphs.  The metopes were square spaces between the triglyps often, but not always, adorned with groups of finely sculptured figures.  They covered the opening of the hole in the frieze made by a beam.  [original slide]
  3. Corner of Hephaesteion:  Metopes and triglyphs circle the roof of the structure.  Doric, fluting, capital (abascus or a slab forming the crowning member of the capital; the echinus or the convex or projecting moulding which supports the abascus of the capital).  The architrave or beam or lowest division of the entablature, which was the superstructure (everything above the column capitals) of the building.  The cornice or the crowning or upper portion of the entablature.  The guttae were the small cones under the triglyps of a Doric entablature. [original slide]
  4. Hephaesteion as viewed from Agora:  Doric, hexastyle, with pronaos and opisthodomos both distyle in antis.  A bronze screen extending from antae to antae probably closed the temple.  Oriented to the East as were about 80% of all Greek temples.  Surrounded by a peristyle (covered colonnade which surrounds a building) of 34 columns (6x13)
  5. Hephaesteion viewed from Acropolis:  sculptor was Alcamenes, probably Athenian and active between 440 and 400 BC.  He may have come from the Athenian-controlled island of Lemnos in the Aegean.  He was a pupil and rival of Pheidias.    The sculpted figures were of Parian marble, quarried from the island of Paros.  Parian marble was coarser than Pentelic marble of which the building itself was made.  [original slide]
  6. Three Orders of Greek Columns:  Doric:  no base; shallow fluting; widening in middle (called entasis).  Ionic:  after the Persian conquest of Ionia in 546, many Ionian artists fled to Attica and began this style.  Corinthian:  devised by the 4th century but became most popular in Roman era.
  7. Construction of Roofs of the Temples:  early temples were built of wood; thus the triglyph carries a memory of beam ends.  Terracotta tiles were used, but it is conjectured that translucent marble tiles were sometimes used.
  8. Corinthian capital:  Epidaurus Museum
  9. Scroll of Ionic capital:  [original slide]
  10. Block showing triglyph and metope:  [original slide]
  11. Coffered ceiling from Hephaesteion:  Coffers are sunken panels formed in the ceilings, vaults and domes.  [original slide]
  12. Coffered ceiling from Hephaesteion:  [original slide]
  13. Coffered ceiling from Hephaesteion:  [original slide]
  14. Coffered ceiling block:  [original slide]
  15. Hephaesteion from the Agora:  pronaos (porch in front of cella); distyle in antis (two columns between the antae (pilaster or corner post of slight projection terminating the end of lateral walls of a cella and serving as a respond to a column) in which case the columns are said to be in antis.
  16. Hephaesteion from the Agora:  Opisthodomos (false porch at the rear of the cella) is also distyle in antis.  In most temples it was filled with treasure.  It duplicated the pronaos for the sake of symmetry.  Surrounded by a peristyle (a covered colonnade which surrounds a building) of 34 columns (6x13).  [original slide]
  17. Hephaesteion from the Agora:  with Acropolis in background [original slide]
  18. Hephaesteion from Athenian acropolis:  The Hephaesteion had an Ionic element at the base of the antae in the form of curved molding.  Also it had an Ionic frieze in the interior.  The interior had superimposed rows of columns supporting the ceiling.  At the end of the cella were bronze statues of Hephaestus and Athena designed by Alcamanes in 421 BC  [original slide]
  19. Hephaesteion (stippling on a block):  Outside blocks were smooth along the edges but surface was pock-marked to make for more elegant appearance and to accentuate the divisions between the blocks.  [original slide]
  20. Column base with pour channels:  [original slide]
  21. Base of column with pour channel:  [original slide]
  22. Clamps:  clamps were usually of lead.  Could be I-clamp or T-clamp of dovetail clamp  [original slide]
  23. T-clamp:  [original slide]
  24. Ionic capital:  note the volute [original slide]
  25. Acropolis aerial view: in the center distance are the ruins of Pisistratus/Hadrian’s Temple of Olympieron Zeus; in the rear the 1896 stadium built on the site of the ancient stadium (which had been rebuilt by Herodes Atticus with seats holding 50,000)  On the right slope of the Acropolis is the ancient Dionysian theater and in the foreground the theater of Herodos Atticus (AD 101-77 AD)
  26. Acropolis from Agora:  [original slide]
  27. Acropolis entrance:  [original slide]
  28. View of Hymettus from Acropolis:  [original slide]
  29. Acropolis reconstruction:  1) Propylaea; 2) Temple of Athena Nike; 3) Pedestal of Agrippa; 4) Vraoneion (use?); 5) Chalcothece (storehouse of armor, arms); 6) statue of Athena (30 feet tall; gilded spear); 7) Mycenaean fountain house? 8) West face of Acropolis 0) Erechtheum ; 10) altar of Athena in enclosure; the round building was a Temple of Rome and Augustus.  (Tourist Book)
  30. The Great Panathenaic Procession:  held every four years to bring a new robe to Athena (to the old wooden statue in the Erechtheum).  Many animals were sacrificed and the meat distributed to the people; prize in the games was olive oil distributed in Amphora with Athena depicted.  Every year there was a lesser celebration on Athena’s birthday in July or August.  NG
  31. Parthenon at night:  The “Earth proudly wears the Parthenon as the best gem upon her zone.”  [Emerson]  Means Virgin’s apartment.  It is one of the larger Greek temples, 227 ft. long and 101 ft. wide.  It is 65 ft. high.  It was erected between 447 and 438 BC.  It was built entirely of Pentelic marble veined with iron grains except for the roof, which was of wood.  Architects were Ictinus and Callicrates.  Sculptor was Pheidias.
  32. Parthenon:  Its order of accuracy was 1 to 10,000; that of a modern skyscraper is 1 to 250.  The temple possessed base isolation.  Only part of the foundation rested on bedrock, while the other part sat on a bedding of stone.  Thus the foundation could float or move during an earthquake.  [original slide]
  33. Parthenon construction:  The architects, Ictinus and Callicrates, curved the platform slightly and tilted the columns inward in order to give the illusion that they were perpendicular instead of leaning outward.  448-432 BC [TL]
  34. Circle and Square Geometry:  the architects, Ictinus, Callicrates and Carpion, all under the supervision of Phidias the sculptor
  35. Entrance to Parthenon (East Face):  The pediment shows birth of Athena from the brain of Zeus; the goddesses of birth and death were in the angles; two seated figures were probably Demeter and Persephone.  On the right were three seated female figures known as the Three Fates.  Note the memorials on the steps.  [Botsford & Robinson]
  36. Floor Plan of Parthenon:  on the right:  the temple of Athena, showing the location of the statue of Athena; on the left was the “Treasury of Athena” which contained such trophies as the throne of Xerxes captured after Plataea and perhaps also contained archives.  The “cella” was encompassed by walls.  [Tourist book]
  37. Exterior of Parthenon:  Doric peristyle of 46 columns (8 (octastyle) x17):  column drums; stylobate (top step)  [original slide]
  38. Exterior of Parthenon:  Columns had a base diameter of 6 1/4th ft, a height of 34 1/4th feet.  They were composed of ten to twelve drums of varying heights and had twenty shallow flutes.  They had entasis (convex curve or swelling), which was designed to correct the optical illusion by which straight tapered shafts appear concave.  The columns swelled by three-quarters of an inch from base to middle and tapered toward the top.  [original slide]
  39. Corner columns of Parthenon:  Corner columns thickened.  [original slide]
  40. Parthenon corner columns from interior:  Axes of columns lean 2 ½ inches inward.  Lines appear vertical but are slightly inclined.  [original slide]
  41. Bottom column drum:  often fluted before being set in place because artisans would have difficulty chipping away the stone, which rested on the floor.  [original slide]
  42. Parthenon corner column:  Inter-columnation at corners is less than that between the other columns along the flanks (called contraction).  This optical refinement was designed to counter the effect of seeing the sky, which tended to shrink the mass of the column.  [original slide]
  43. Parthenon flank columns:  Shows architrave and intercolumnation along sides [original slide]
  44. Parthenon side view:  [original slide]
  45. Parthenon column and architrave:  shows echinus, abacus, drums, flutes.  [original slide]
  46. Parthenon and frieze:  shows metopes and triglyphs.  These were not exactly square but were designed to appear square from below.  The cornice overlapped the frieze and its ledge supported the sculpture of the pediments.  The upper side of the cornice had mutules (projecting inclined blocks in Doric cornices, derived from ends of wooden beams) with guttae (small conical drops or cones or pegs; one group of small drop-like  ornaments under the triglyphs and mutules of the Doric entablature.  [original slide]
  47. Parthenon architrave and frieze:  shows intercolumnation, metopes, triglyphs [original slide]
  48. Parthenon cella:  shows statue base.  The cella was long.  It was prostyle (possessed a freestanding colonnaded porch) and had an opisthodomos (treasury – special chamber where the offerings of the worshipers were placed or a false porch at the rear of the cella often included for the sake of symmetry).  [original slide]
  49. Parthenon cella:  shows statue base.  Opisthodomos probably served as a treasury.  [original slide]
  50. Statue of Athena:  (Athena the Virgin) 38 ft. high; face and arms of ivory.  The robe used 2545 pounds of gold from the treasury of the Delian League.  The robe was melted down in the emergency of the Peloponnesian Wars after the defeat of Athens at Syracuse.  Athena’s right hand held a Victory; a huge serpent shows from behind the shield; the shield showed the Aegis with a Gorgon-head at the center, and Fear, Fight, Force, and Pursuit surrounding.  On her shoulders crawled serpents.  This was a work of Phidias.  He was imprisoned for embezzling some of the gold assigned him.
  51. Parthenon cella:  [original slide]
  52. Parthenon cella:  [original slide]
  53. Statue base for Athena, Parthenon cella:  Sculpted by Pheidias.  [original slide]
  54. Parthenon cella:  [original slide]
  55. Lead I-clamps, Parthenon:  [original slide]
  56. Frieze of Panathenaic Procession:  circled the top of the cella wall.  It was 523 ft. long, 4 ft. high, and was 39 ft. above the floor.  125 horses, no two alike, and 350 humans were depicted; at the corners there was crowding as the procession slowed down.  This is part of the Elgin Marbles in the British Museum.  [Life]
  57. Three Fates:  from the Eastern pediment; probably Hestia, Aphrodite, and Mother Dione.  British Museum [Life]
  58. Metope from the Parthenon:  Battle of the Centaurs and Lapiths.  There were 92 metopes, 15 carried away by Lord Elgin; but most were lost at sea.  Other metopes depicted battles between the gods and giants and between the Greeks and Amazons.
  59. Parthenon at night:  [original slide]
  60. Parthenon and acropolis at night:  [original slide]
  61. Parthenon and acropolis at night:  [original slide]
  62. Panoramic view of Parthenon:  [original slide]
  63. Frontal view of Parthenon:  octastyle [original slide]
  64. Parthenon ambulatory:  [original slide]
  65. Parthenon ambulatory:  [original slide]
  66. Parthenon ambulatory:  [original slide]
  67. Parthenon ambulatory:  [original slide]
  68. Parthenon cella:  [original slide]
  69. Parthenon exterior:  looking toward Temple of Athena Nike [original slide]
  70. Parthenon:  [original slide]
  71. Parthenon:  [original slide]
  72. Parthenon:  long view [original slide]
  73. Parthenon:  long view [original slide]
  74. Erechteum Reconstruction:  Erechtheus was an early king of Athens and was deified after his death.   According to legend, Erechtonios was born to Hephaistos and Gaia (Earth).  Athena, his foster mother, placed him in a chest and committed him to Pandrosos, daughter of Kekrops.  Erechthonios, who had serpent attributes, grew up to expel Amphictyon and become king of Athens.  He set up xoanon to Athena and supposedly instituted the Panathenaia.  He and his grandson, Erechtheus became identified with one another. Erechtheus supposedly built the first Parthenon.  Note the mark of Poseidon’s trident; the sacred olive tree (that revived after the Persians burned Athens – thus giving hope; the sacred snake was perhaps housed in this enclosure – the snake was a sacred symbol of Athena.  The snake was fed honey cakes.  The ancient wooden statue of Athena Polias (the protector of the city) was housed in the cella.  The porch of the caryatids is a famous feature.  The temple area contained the tomb of the 1st king of Athens:  Cecrops.  Ionic order.  Architects:  Philooles of Acharnae and Archilochus of Agrylla.  Construction began between 421 and 415 BC. during the Peace of Nikias.  The Peloponnesian War delayed construction and it was completed between 409 and 408 BC.  Fire damaged it in 406 but it was rebuilt in 395 BC.  [Tourist Book]
  75. Construction of the Erechtheum:  note drum construction of columns; note the bronze connectors.  A modern restoration tried to use iron and the result was rust stains on the marble; as a result present reconstructors are going back to the original type of connections.
  76. Porch of the Maidens:  All statues have now been replaced by concrete copies.  In this picture one column is concrete, as the original was taken by Lord Elgin.  [NG]
  77. Erectheum broad view:  The Erechtheion was constructed to replace the ancient temple to Athena and was a joint shrine of Athena and Poseidon.  The frieze was made of Eleusian stone and the figures were carved separately and dowelled in.  This was more economical, since the background would not have to be repainted.  However, the figures were too fragile and broke off easily.  Inscriptions give a clue as to what the figures were and who was getting paid to carve each figure.  There was probably one master planner and numerous artisans working under him.  The artisans did piece work at 60 drachma per carving (1 dr. = 1 day’s wage).  [original slide]
  78. Erectheum broad view:  Temple contained a number of ‘curiosities’ which included an ancient xoanon and its lamp a wooden Hermes said to have been an offering from Kekrops, a folding chair made by Daedalus and some Persian spoils from Platae:  a corset of Masistius fashioned from gold links and the sword of Mardonius.  [original slide]
  79. Erechtheum columns on eastern portico:  The eastern portico (prostyle, hexastyle) contained six Ionic columns, 22 feet high, including bases and capitals.  They were 2 ½ feet in diameter at the base.  Rested on a stylobate of three marble steps.  The pediment lacked sculpture.[original slide]
  80. Erechtheum columns:  The columns contained sculpture compound ribs on the upper spirals of the bases and sculptured compound ribs on the capitals above the echinus (the convex molding of circular plan with egg and dart placed under the cushion of the Ionic capital).  Also distinguished by sculptured anthemia (a continuous pattern of alternating palmette and lotus, often arising from nests of acanthus leaves and connected scrolls) of the hypotrachelium.  These decorated the echinus.  And were repeated on the abacus (the uppermost member of the capital molded in the Ionic order and curved out over the canted white of the special Ionic capital at the corner of the building)  Column capitals also contained double spiral ribs – countersunk between the convolutions.  They had gilt bronze stem ending in a group of rosettes in the eyes of the volutes.  [original slide]
  81. Porch of the maidens:  Caryatids.  Southern Porch marked the legendary tomb of Cecrops and was built to balance the North Porch  The maidens wore Ionic costumes.  Figures stood four in front and two behind. They may have been work of Alcamenes, a disciple of Phiedias.  Their forced immobility did not restrain their intrinsic vitality.  The figures seemed to place their weight on one leg, but all did not lean on the same leg – three leaned on the left; three on the right – which made for a more harmonious impression and gave them the appearance of elasticity and power and made the building more structurally sound.  Their long Ionic tunics were draped like column fluting about their outer legs on which their weight was thrown.  Through careful and deliberate placement of the hair, the architects strengthened their necks, which was necessary for the burden the maidens had to carry.    The sculptors may have taken as models the girls of Karyai in Laconia, when the name Caryatids.  But they represent the Arrephoroi  bearing Athena’s burdens on their heads during the solemn procession of the Panathenaic festival.  Idea of using statues in lieu of columns may have been borrowed from the Treasuries of the Knidians and Siphnians at Delphi.  Porch had a three-stepped Krepidoma, which was a continuation of that of the Eastern and Western flanks.[original slide]
  82. Erechtheum at night:
  83. Erechtheum at night:  columns and frieze 
  84. Parthenon from Porch of Erechtheum:  [original slide]
  85. View of the Acropolis: 
  86. Odeion:  South side of the Acropolis  [original slide]
  87. Odeion:  South side of the Acropolis  [original slide]
  88. Ionic temple molding:  [original slide]
  89. Toilet:  [original slide]
  90. Polygonal masonry:  blocks assembled with joints on several sides.  [original slide]
  91. Exedra:  semicircular recess or alcove with a raised seat.  [original slide]
  92. Akroterion:  Nike.  The figure or ornament at the lower angles or apex of a pediment.  Carving that was placed where the roof and the cornice met and at the top of the pediment.  They were often statues or faces of mythological creatures.  2nd cent AD Asklepeiron [original slide]
  93. Triglyphs:  with Temple of Apollo, Corinth in background  [John Decopoulos slide]
  94. Door jamb with cuttings:  [original slide]
  95. Door jamb:  [original slide]
  96. Coffer (sunken panel) from ceiling of interior colonnade of the Tholos at Epidaurus:  Epidaurus Museum
  97. Coffer (marble sunken panel) from ceiling of the exterior colonnade of the Tholos at Epidaurus:  Epidaurus Museum
  98. Tholos of Polykleitos:  Epidaurus.
  99. Tholos of Polykleitos:  Epidaurus.  [original slide]
  100. Ionic column capital:  [original slide]
  101. Ionic column base:  [original slide]
  102. Ionic molding:  [original slide]
  103. Temple of Apollo, Corinth:  The Temple of Apollo is canonical.  It sat atop an isolated knoll.  It is one of the oldest temples in Greece (mid 6th century BC).  There was an earlier mid-7th century temple at the site.  Temple was rebuilt in 44 BC.  Doric, peripteral (building surrounded by a single row of columns (peri = around; pteron = wing);  a continuous veranda with an outer row of columns all round the building..  [original slide]
  104. Temple of Apollo, Corinth:  Peristyle of 38 limestone columns (6X15).  Shafts were monoliths, 24 feet high and 6 feet in diameter with 20 flutes.  They had flat archaic capitals.  Column contraction at the corner triglyphs.   [original slide]
  105. Temple of Apollo, Corinth:  The bottom diameter of the columns determined the height of the columns and the spacing between them.  The more columns, the higher the pediment.  If a building looked squat, steps were added to give the appearance of more height.  [original slide]
  106. Temple of Apollo, Corinth:  The naos or cella consisted of two unequal chambers separated by a wall.  There was a portico, distyle in antis at either end.  Two rows of interior columns supported the roof.  [John Decopoulos slide]
  107. Temple of Apollo, Corinth:  [slide by John Decopoulos]
  108. Temple of Apollo, Corinth:  Statue base rested in the west chamber near partition wall.  [original slide]
  109. Temple of Apollo, Corinth:  The pronaos (porch in front of the naos or cella) in the Southwest corner contained a rectangular strongbox lined with waterproof cement.  [original slide]
  110. Egg and Dart molding:  [original slide]
  111. Temple of Diana:  Jerash, Jordan.  Corinthian hexastyle
  112. Clamps in blocks:  [original slide]
  113. Embossed blocks:  ashlar masonry.  Building not finished.  [original slide]
  114. Lion’s Head spout:  [original slide]
  115. Lion’s Head spout:  [original slide]
  116. Orthostate course:  [original slide]
  117. Egg and dart molding:  [original slide]
  118. Latrine, Roman agora:  Athens [original slide]
  119. Swirling flutes:  Roman Hierapolis, Turkey.  [original slide]
  120. Polygonal masonry:  Stoa (building with roof supported by rows of columns supported by rows of columns parallel to the rear wall) of the Athenians at Delphi [original slide]
  121. Niche for oil lamp:  Jerash, Jordan [original slide]
  122. Block from Doric frieze:  [original slide]
  123. Roman brick:  [original slide]
  124. Nymphaeum:  Jerash, Jordan [original slide]
  125. Nymphaeum:  Jerash, Jordan [original slide]
  126. Temple of Athena Nike:  Athens.  Orthostade course, molding, Crepidoma [original slide]
  127. Temple of Athena Nike:  Athens.  Stylobate, steps, column base [original slide]
  128. Temple of Athena Nike:  Athens.  Orthostate.  [original slide]
  129. Temple of Athena Nike panoramic view:  The Temple was erected in the late 5th century BC (427 BC).  It was built entirely of Pentelic marble.  Callicrates designed the temple, which is an example of a building in the penultimate phase of Ionic architecture [original slide]
  130. Temple of Athena Nike:  view from below acropolis.  It was built on a tower-like pedestal – a light, elegant compliment of the Propylaea, which are loaded down with heavy structures. [original slide]
  131. Temple of Athena Nike:  broad view.  It is not canonical.  Its cella is wider than it is long, which is unique among Greek temples.  There is no pronaos or opisthodomos. [original slide]
  132. Temple of Athena Nike, cella:  pillar, molding, orthostate, floor. Also not canonical are pillars rather than columns in the antis.    [original slide]
  133. Temple of Athena Nike at night:  view from below acropolis.  It is amphiprostyle (porticos of columns in front and rear only).  The wall has molding at the level of the stylobate and this is Ionic molding on the piers.
  134. Temple of Athena Nike at night:  closeup.  The Ionic columns have a base to height ratio of 6:1 (Ionic columns usually had a ratio of 9:1).  The 6:1 proportion was used because of the truncated nature of the structure.  The columns were monolithic, not in drums, and the capital is characterized by an egg and dart motif and cushions.  There are four columns (tetrastyle) at each end, and they were fluted.
  135. Temple of Athena Nike:  closeup.  The temple rested on a four-step krepidoma.  The pyrgos or platform on which the temple stands was paved with marble. [original slide]
  136. Athena Nike:  from below acropolis [original slide]
  137. Athena Nike:  side view.  The frieze extended around the entire exterior and was sculpted in high relief.  The pediments were also sculpted but the theme is unknown.  [original slide]
  138. Athena Nike:  side view [original slide]
  139. Athena Nike:  close-up [original slide]
  140. Athena Nike:  close-up  [original slide]
  141. Athena Nike reconstruction:  [Tourist Guide]
  142. Wall around Athenian Acropolis:  [original slide]
  143. View of the Athenian Acropolis at night:  Parthenon in background
  144. View of the Athenian Acropolis at night:  Parthenon, Propylaea, Athena Nike
  145. View of the Athenian Acropolis at night:  Parthenon, Propylaea, Athena Nike, Erechtheum.  The Greeks gave the name propylon to the entrance of a sanctuary, palace or agora.  The plural propylaia was reserved for more elaborate entrances such as a monumental gateway.
  146. Propylaea, Athenian Acropolis:  Constructed between 437 and 432 BC but never completed due to the Peloponnesian War.  It was built after the Parthenon.  If it had been erected before the Parthenon, there was a potential for damage in hauling the huge blocks to the Parthenon.    [original slide]
  147. Propylaea, Athenian Acropolis, embossed blocks, stippling:  One wing was not finished, and the lifting bosses are still on the outside of the blocks.  These were present so that ropes could be attached for moving the block.  [original slide]
  148. Propylaea, Athenian Acropolis at night:  Mnesikles designed the building which was to provide a grand view of the Parthenon.  The plan was to have it extend across the entire width of the acropolis.  Its axis was aligned to that of the Parthenon, and its width would have equaled the length of the temple.  Proportions are worked out in the ratio of 4:9 thus affording the only certain example before the Hellenistic era of designing one building in direct relationship to another.  It was constructed almost wholly of Pentellic marble except for the foundations and the decorative features, which were made of Eleusinian limestone.  One approaching the Propylaea could appreciate the form of the building with its lateral wings for being well balanced. 
  149. Steps of Propylaea, Athenian Acropolis:  The structure consisted of a central hall containing the portal and two wings, one of which was shorter because it could not infringe on the previously existing Temple of Athena Nike  [original slide]
  150. Propylaea, Athenian Acropolis at night:  The Propylaea provided architectural form to the only natural point of access to the rock.  Originally Mnesikles planned it to form a uniform monumental boundary to the entire west side extending from the Temple of Athena Nike on the south side, to the north slope.  The only part of the building actually completed was the central part. 
  151. Window in Propylaea:  A north wing contained a picture gallery (Pinacotheca) and linked with the central section at right angles.   Rough surface of the walls suggests that the pictures were easel paintings.  Pausanias wrote that it contained the “Achilleus in Skyros” by Polygnotos, the most famous painter in classical Greece.   The southern wing was only constructed in part, and was shortened to half of its planned extent so as not to crowd the Temple of Athena Nike.  [original slide]
  152. Propylaea and Athena Nike: 
  153. Temple of Olympieron Zeus:  Distant view.  The Olympieron was the largest building in Greece and  was completed over a period of 700 years, “a great victory of time” according to Philostratus.  Pesistratos first undertook construction on a grand scale.  Aristotle remarked in his “Politics” that his purpose was to keep the people too busy to indulge in plots.  Work ceased before the stylobate was complete when Hippias went into exile.  Much of the masonry ended up in the Themistoclean wall.  In 174 BC Antiochus IV Ephiphanes, king of Syria (175-164 BC) resumed building.  The Roman Cossutius drafted a new design and substituted the Cjorinthian for the Doric order.  Work again ceased at the entablature stage.  In 86 BC the Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla carried off some of the shafts and capitals to Rome for the Capitoline Temple.  The Emperor Hadrian saw the temple’s completion and dedicated it on his second visit to Athens c. 130 AD.  He set up a chryselephantine statue in the cella (a copy of that by Pheidias at Olympia).  He also set up a colossal statue of himself in the cella.  There may not have been a roof even in Hadrian’s time.[original slide]
  154. Olympieron:  distant view.  It was dipteral (extra row of columns at each end)  octastyle (eight columns across the front) with an extra row of columns at each end and twenty columns at each side.  It had 104 columns in all.  [original slide] 
  155. Olympieron:  distant view.  The height of the temple’s front is about 96 feet.  Livy wrote, “it is the only temple on earth of a size adequate to the greatness of the god” but several other temples exceeded in size [those at Agrigento and Selinus in Sicily and Ephesus and Miletus in Asia Minor.    [original slide]
  156. Olympieron:  distant view.  The enormous temple measured 135 by 354 feet and stood in a precinct (still marked out) measuring 424 by 680 feet.  Stones composing the architrave weighed up to 23 tons.  Remains are not sufficient to determine interior plan.   [original slide]
  157. Olympieron:  distant view.  Only 16 Corinthian columns of a total of 104) mark the remains of the immense temple.  The columns were each 56 feet high, made of Pentelic marble and had slender shafts and finely carved Corinthian capitals.  It had a double colonnade of 20 lateral columns and three rows of eight columns at each end. [original slide]
  158. Olympieron:  distant view with fallen column.  The columns were of Pentellic marble  [original slide]
  159. Fallen column of Olympieron:  The columns had sixteen blunt flutings.  Their base diameter was 5 ½ feet and there were 16 column drums.  [original slide]
  160. Columns and stylobate of Olympieron:  The columns rose to a height of 56 feet.  Each rested on a separate foundation.  There was no continuous foundation base.  [original slide]
  161. Column capitals and architrave of Olympieron:  Corinthian capitals  [original slide]
  162. Broken capital of column from Olympieron:  [original slide]
  163. Olympieron stylobate:  The stylobate measured 18 by 45 yards and possessed three steps – the lower two of poros and the upper one of marble  [original slide]
  164. Hadrian’s Library, Athens: [original slide]
  165. Hadrian’s Library, Athens:  [original slide]
  166. Hadrian’s Library, Athens:  [original slide]
  167. Hadrian’s Library, Athens:  [original slide]
  168. Trajan’s Temple Pergamun:  [original slide]
  169. Gulf of Sounion from Sounion:  [original slide]
  170. Cape Sounion and Temple of Poseidon:  distant view of temple overlooking Gulf of Sounion.  Temple was perched on cape 197 feet above the sea.
  171. Temple of Poseidon at Sounion:  Located on Cape Sounion, the Temple of Poseidon was built between 444 and 400 BC
  172. Temple of Poseidon at Sounion:  designed by same architect who designed Hephaesteion in Athens and probably formed part of Periclean building program.  It stood on foundations of an earlier edifice in poros stone, which was begun before 490 BC and remained unfinished at the time of the Persian Wars.
  173. Temple of Poseidon at Sounion:  distant view.  The temple is Doric but has some Ionic features such as a relief frieze.  [original slide]
  174. Temple of Poseidon at Sounion:  distant view.  The temple was canonical with 6 columns in front (hexastyle) and 13 on the flanks.  [original slide]
  175. Temple of Poseidon at Sounion:  side view.  The columns were gray-veined marble quarried at Agrileza, three miles to the North.  This marble did not contain iron and did not lose color with the passage of time (unlike Pentelic which turns warm tones of beige, pink or gold).  It was soft and wore easily.
  176. Temple of Poseidon at Sounion:  distant view.  There were 34 columns, which had only 16 rather than the normal 20 flutes.  Sixteen flutes had been used in the Archaic period.  Flutes were shallower than normal and the ridges were not as sharp, which made them less likely to wear at the exposed site.  Columns did not have entasis.  The columns had very slender proportions.
  177. Temple of Poseidon at Sounion:  distant view.  The temple contained an Ionic frieze in Parian marble, which was believed to illustrate the contest between Lapiths and Centaurs, the Gigantomachia or battle between gods and giants, and the exploits of Theseus.  It lined all four sides of the front pteroma (rectangular space between the colonnade of the façade and the line “connecting” the third column of each side with the antae and two columns at the entrance of the pronaos) – comparable with Hephaisteion.  [original slide]  This feature was not repeated in the corresponding space behind the West façade of the building. 
  178. Temple of Poseidon at Sounion:  distant view.  Pediments were sculptured.  Building had a raking cornice with a pitch of 12 ½ degrees instead of the more usual 15 degrees.  [original slide]
  179. Temple of Poseidon at Sounion:  close-up.  The pronaos was distyle in antis.  The cella contained no interior colonnade, which left more free space.  The opisthodoms was also distyle in antis.  No door led from the cella to the opisthodomos
  180. Column drums from Temple of Poseidon at Sounion:  Column drums were all of the same height which was unique in Greek architecture.  [original slide]
  181. Temple of Poseidon at Sounion:  close-up showing columns and architrave.  The external metopes were blank – perhaps because of the exposed nature of the site.
  182. Treasury of the Athenians, Delphi:  [original slide]
  183. Temple of Apollo, Aegina:  Surviving column from the temple of Apollo
  184. Temple of Aphaia, Aegina:  Erected between 510 and 490 BC on the site of two earlier temples.  Located on a pine-clad hill commanding a splendid view of the bay of Ayia Marina on the Saronic Gulf.  The deity Aphaia may have been a variant of the Mother Goddess from Crete, daughter of Zeus and Carme, devoted to the hunt.  In order to escape from the attentions of Minos, who had fallen in love with her, she cast herself into the sea and was caught up in the nets of some fishermen.  When one of the fishermen became enamored of the beautiful girl, she once more plunged into the sea; this time she emerged at Aegina, where she was rendered invisible in a grove.  Aphaia concealed herself in a cave, which is actually situated at the northeast corner of the peribolos (a precinct, but often refers to the circuit around it such as a peribolos wall (temenos) of the Archaic sanctuary.[original slide]
  185. Temple of Aphaia, Aegina:  distant view.  Doric peripteral (building surrounded by a single row of columns (peri – around; pteron – wing or a continuous row of columns round a building) hexastyle.  Twelve columns on the flanks.  Built of soft, porous local limestone, coated with thin layer of stucco, which was painted.    There is an outer peribolos wall.  The propylon dates from the 6th century B.C.  The temple sits on an artificial terrace.  The altar is to the East and its foundations remain.  The pedimental sculpture was of Parian marble and depicted scenes of two Trojan campaigns.  The East pediment showed the first campaign led by Heracles against King Laomedon.  Athena presided over the battle.  Aeginetan, a mythological hero, and Telamon, son of Aeacus, also took part alongside of Herakles.  The West pediment showed Agamemnon’s campaign against Priam.  In this Ajax and Teucer, sons of Telamon, and Achilles, son of Peleus, played an important part.  Both representations indicated the significance of the heroism of the Aeginetans by showing the exploits of their famous ancestors.  This was an indirect way of commemorating their great contribution to the battle of Salamis in which they, not the Athenians, won the first prize for bravery.
  186. Temple of Aphaia, Aegina:  cella  There was a pronaos and opisthodomos.  The pronaos once housed the figureheads of Samian triremes captured at Kydonia.  It had a red stucco pavement and the entrance was closed off with high grille (markings on columns).  The cella  was divided internally by two colonnades of five columns each.  The doorway from the opisthodomos was not central.  It was pierced after a solid cross-wall had been started.  [original slide]
  187. Temple of Aphaia, Aegina:  column capitals and architrave.  There were a total of 32 columns, 3 Doric feet in diameter at the base, axially spaced at eight feet.  Corner columns were thickened for optical effect (1/40th larger)  All shafts were monolithic except for three adjacent columns on the North flank (may have need a gap until the last moment to facilitate the completion of the interior) [original slide]
  188. Temple of Aphaia, Aegina:  distant view.  There is a ramp from the base of the altar to the sterobate of three steps on which the temple stood.
  189. Temple of Aphaia, Aegina:  column capitals and architrave [original slide]
  190. Temple of Aphaia, Aegina:  superimposed columns.  Epistyle in the cella.  Above the epistyle was a second row of smaller superimposed columns.  The tapering was continuous.  They carried a flat ceiling [original slide]
  191. Temple of Aphaia, Aegina:  superimposed columns.  [original slide]
  192. Temple of Diana, Jerash, Jordan:  Corinthian hexastyle [original slide]
  193. Temple of Apollo at Bassae:  distant view.  Located in Arcadia, set in the arena of the mountains.  It rests on a narrow rocky terrace of Mt. Katilion (now Paliavla-kitsa) whose summit rises above it to the Northeast.  The mountain is scored with ravines from which the place takes its general name of the glens.  Locals call the temple site “the columns.”  [Hannibal, Greece]
  194. Temple of Apollo at Bassae:  distant view.  Attributed to Iktinos by  Pausanias and designed c. 450-447 BC, the style indicates that it was an earlier work than the Parthenon.  It may not have been completed before 425 BC.  It imitated the old Apollo temple at Delphi.  It did not conform to original canons of Doric architecture and was decorated by continuous relief carvings, many of which are in the British Museum.  It was constructed of cold gray limestone with marble being employed for sculptures and decorative parts including ceilings over the pronaos, opisthodomos and short sides of the ambulatory.  It exhibited Greek techniques in base isolation with the foundations being designed to withstand earthquakes.  It contained a series of cribbing walls.  The foundation was a bedding of limestone packing on top of bedrock.  The foundations incorporated reused blocks from an Archaic predecessor, which occupied the area immediately to the South.  Arcardians who had served in Athens during the time of the plague and who wanted to give thanks for being spared probably erected the temple.[Hannibal, Greece]
  195. Temple of Apollo at Bassae:  distant view.  The building was Doric peripteral hexastyle, 12 ½ feet long and 48 feet wide.  It had an unusual orientation, derived from an earlier building on the site.  It also incorporated all three orders:  Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.    [Hannibal, Greece]
  196. Temple of Apollo at Bassae:  distant view.  Peristyle.  6 by 15 columns.  No entasis.  Vigorously hewn flutes whose ridges reacted harmoniously to the play of light and increased the drama.  The stylobate of three steps incorporated an upward curvature.  Roof tiles were of Parian marble.  There were also marble guttae.  [Hannibal, Greece]
  197. Temple of Apollo at Bassae:  distant view.  The interior contained a conventional pronaos, cella and opisthodomos but with an unusual arrangement.  The pronaos was 18 feet long, distyle in antis and decorated with a metope frieze.  A metal barrier with gates shut it off from the colonnade and a door led to the cella.  The opisthodoms had a 13 ½ foot length was distyle in antis and was open to the colonnade.  A wall cut it off from the cella.  The cella was 55 feet long and 23 feet wide and had two parts.  The North section, 40 feet long, was adorned on either side with a series of five semi-columns, engaged in buttresses that projected from the side wall.  This created recesses with the main naos wall have a stone coffered ceiling.  The first four pairs were at right angles and contained bell-shaped bases resting on a 4-inch high step.  Volutes were on three faces of the Ionic capitals.  A 5th pair (at the South end) projected diagonally inward and had Corinthian capitals.  The group of engaged columns were unusually located – not opposite the peristyle columns but in the intercolumnations.  A single Corinthian column occupied the space between the 5th pair.  It was marble with 20 flutes.  The capital has been lost but records indicate it had an acanthus decoration – the earliest example of the Corinthian order.  The interior colonnade had a height of 20 ½ feet, a foot higher than the peristyle, and supported an Ionic entablature with frieze.  The frieze, 102 feet long and two feet high, was carved in island marble and represented battles between the Greeks and Amazons and the Lapiths and Centaurs.  An inner Adyton occupied the remaining 15 feet of the cella.  It had an unusual design with a door on the East side.  A cult statue may have been on the West wall so it would have faced sunrise through the door to the East.  The plan may have followed that of an earlier sanctuary on the site.  It had a coffered timber ceiling and no hypaethral lighting.  The cult statue might have stood in a more normal position in the cella.  Pausanias wrote that the figure of Apollo was transferred in 369 BC to the agora at Megalopolis and was replaced by an acrolithic statue (one with a stone head, hands and feet and a wood trunk)[Hannibal, Greece]
  198. Coffered ceiling blocks, Temple of Apollo at Bassae:  The ceilings had seven types of coffers.  The colonnade had coffered ceiling of different patterns[original slide]
  199. Statue base, Temple of Apollo at Bassae:  [original slide]








  1. Paestum Temple of Poseidon:   Mid-5th-century BC. Amphiprostyle (having two symmetrical fronts.  Hexastyle.  Peripteral (peristyle of only one line of columns.)  [original slide]
  2. Paestum Temple of Poseidon:  Columns made to look more slender and elegant by a larger number of flutes (24 instead of the usual 20)[original slide]
  3. Paestum Temple of Poseidon:  The cella was divided into three naves and closed by two walls, of which nothing remains, though terminal pillars are still present.  [original slide]
  4. Paestum Temple of Poseidon:  There was a pronaos and opisthodomos, both distyle in antis [original slide]
  5. Paestum Temple of Poseidon:  Superimposed columns in cella. [original slide]
  6. Paestum Temple of Poseidon:  Shows pillar.  [original slide]
  7. Paestum Temple of Poseidon:  cella with superimposed columns.  [original slide]
  8. Paestum Temple of Poseidon:  cella with superimposed columns.  [original slide]
  9. Paestum Temple of Hera:  distant view.  Built in mid-6th century BC  [original slide]
  10. Paestum Temple of Hera::  distant view.  It had 9 columns across the front and 18 along flanks, 50 total (4 corner columns function as front and side columns)  Considerable swelling in the column shafts.  [original slide]
  11. Paestum Temple of Hera:  Temple of Hera distant view.  The building is unusual because of the considerable swelling of the shafts of the columns, the quite low echinus of the capitals, the odd number of columns on its fronts, and the arrangement of the interior elements.   [original slide]
  12. Paestum Temple of Hera:  Cella was divided into tow naves by a line of 7 columns and a wall, provided with doors, separated the pronaos and naos.  On its back, a wall , provided with doors, separated the naos from the opisthodomos.  Three still-standing columns are between the antae (tristyle in antis) [original slide]
  13. Paestum Temple of Ceres:  distant view.  Late 4th century  [original slide]
  14. Paestum Temple of Ceres with peribolos wall.  Doric hexastyle with 13 columns on flanks.  [original slide]
  15. Paestum Temple:  distant view of flanks.  Simple interior.  Pronaos and cella, no adyton (opisthodomos or treasure room)  The pronaos had 8 columns with Ionic capitals, 4 on the front of the pronaos and two on each.  The walls of the cella ended with engaged semicolumns.    [original slide]
  16. Paestum Doric column:   probably from an earlier temple dating back to the 6th century BC, considering its larger entasis and lower echinus.  [original slide]
  17. Corinthian columns, Corinth:  Roman Corinth. [original slide]
  18. Corinthian columns, Corinth:  Roman Corinth.  [original slide]
  19. Corinthian columns, Corinth:  Roman Corinth.  [original slide]
  20. Ionic column capital:  [original slide]
  21. The Bema in Corinth:  site where St. Paul preached to the Gentiles.  [John Decopoulos slide]
  22. The Bema in Corinth:  [original slide]
  23. The Bema in Corinth:  [original slide]
  24. Canal across Isthmus of Corinth:  [original slide]
  25. Canal across Isthmus of Corinth:  [John Decopoulos slide]
  26. Canal across Isthmus of Corinth:  [original slide]
  27. Acro-Corinth:  [original slide]
  28. Acro-Corinth:  [original slide]
  29. Acro-Corinth:  [original slide]
  30. Corinthian columns, Jerash, Jordan:  [original slide]
  31. Column, initial fluting:  [original slide]
  32. Ionic column capital:  [original slide]
  33. Niche for oil lamp along street, Jerash, Jordan:  [original slide]
  34. Delphi, beveled blocks:  suggests arch [original slide]
  35. Roman agora, Athens:  unfluted columns with bases
  36. Trajan’s Temple, Pergamun:  egg and dart, antefixa, coffered blocks.  [original slide]
  37. Composite Column capital:  [original slide]
  38. Ionic Column capital:  [original slide]